SUMI-E is the Japanese word for Black Ink Painting. East Asian Painting and writing developed together in ancient China using the same materials --brush and ink on paper. Emphasis is placed on the beauty of each individual stroke of the brush. The Chinese speak of "writing a painting" and "painting a poem." A great painting was judged on three elements: the calligraphy strokes, the words of the poetry (often with double meanings and subtle puns) and the ability of the painting strokes to capture the spirit (Ch'i) of nature rather than a photographic likeness. The artists of Japan, Korea and Malaysia learned from the Chinese and then developed their own versions of East Asian brush painting. The artist must learn to use ink freely with a controlled brush stroke. They must be able to capture the essence or spirit of the subject in their paintings. To evoke a poetry of nature, brush painters create beautiful lines and forms by means of brush strokes using a number of techniques and methods to bring life to the subject. The flow and spread of ink on rice paper in many shades is an idealization of the form itself. To this basic technique, color may be added. Sources of this color are plants and minerals including rattan yellow, indigo blue and rouge (plants) and minerals such as powdered jade, white pearl, ground malachite (green) and azurite (blue). An integral part of the composition is the red seal, which signifies the artist's name. Additional seals may be added as indications of the town or philosophy. See "What is Sumi-e?". Sumi-e Society of America. Retrieved 2014-12-10.