Japan around 1854:
Matthew Calbraith Perry was a Commodore of the United States Navy and played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West. In 1852, Perry was assigned a mission by American President Millard Fillmore to force the opening of Japanese ports to American trade, through the use of gunboat diplomacy if necessary. The Japanese were forewarned by the Dutch of Perry's voyage, but were unwilling to change their 220-year-old policy of national seclusion. There was considerable internal debate in Japan on how best to meet this potential threat to Japan's economic and political sovereignty. On November 24, 1852, Perry embarked from Norfolk, Virginia for Japan, in pursuit of a Japanese trade treaty. Perry reached Japan on July 8, 1853. His actions at this crucial juncture were informed by a careful study of Japan's previous contacts with Western ships and what he knew about the Japanese hierarchical culture. As he arrived, Perry ordered his ships to steam past Japanese lines towards the capital of Edo, and turn their guns towards the town of Uraga. Perry refused Japanese demands to leave, or to proceed to Nagasaki, the only Japanese port open to foreigners. Perry attempted to intimidate the Japanese by presenting them a white flag and a letter which told them that in case they chose to fight, the Americans would destroy them. He also fired blank shots from his 73 cannons, which he claimed was in celebration of the American Independence Day. The Japanese government was paralyzed due to the incapacitation by illness of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyoshi and by political indecision on how to handle the unprecedented threat to the nation's capital. After presenting the letter to attending delegates, Perry departed for Hong Kong, promising to return the following year for the Japanese reply. Perry returned on 13 February 1854, after only half a year rather than the full year promised, and with ten ships and 1600 men. Both actions were calculated to put even more pressure onto the Japanese. After initial resistance, Perry was permitted to land at Kanagawa, near the site of present-day Yokohama on March 8, 1854, where, after negotiations lasting for around a month, the Convention of Kanagawa was signed on March 31, 1854. See "Matthew C. Perry". Wikipedia. Retrieved 2016-07-26.
Published by the Japan-America Society of Japan, this item is a reprint of that first treaty between the United States and Japan signed on March 31, 1854. It is beautifully printed on Japanese washi paper. It includes english text and the Japanese caligraphy version.
|Item Condition||Pre-owned. No missing or ripped pages. Please see picture|
|Publisher||The Japan-America Society of Osaka|
|Measure 1||6" x 8.25"|
|Measure 2||pp 13|
|Total Weight||1 oz|